Elsewhere  I considered ways in which programming languages could be different. One of these ways is expressed by asking the question Does the language have an essence? The possibility of an affirmative answer is suggested by the title of John Reynolds’s paper: “The essence of Algol” . Reynolds used what he perceived to be the essence of Algol to make distinctions among members of what is usually considered to be a single family. Thus he argues that Algol 60 is a carrier of the essence, whereas this is not the case for other members of that family: Algol W, Euler, Algol 68, and Pascal.
What is judged to be essence is in the eye of the beholder. I am more interested in what the members of the Algol family have in common and perhaps even with languages not usually considered as members. For example, Prolog. Soon after completion of this language in Marseille, Robert Kowalski wrote a paper (published as ) that established a procedural interpretation of a form of first-order predicate logic. Let us examine this interpretation to see whether this gives a hint concerning the essence of Algol as a procedural language.